Transitions to Alternative Transportation Technologies--Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

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In , sales hit , A survey , conducted by Consumer Reports and the Union of Concerned Scientists UCS , shows that 63 percent of prospective car buyers in America are interested in electric vehicles.

Overall, 31 percent would consider one for their next purchase, 27 percent would consider one at some point down the road, and 5 percent say they are definitely planning on buying or leasing one for their next vehicle. This last number would mark a big escalation in electric car purchases in the U. And many consumers naturally will have questions about how an electric car might fit into their lives. Electric vehicles come in all shapes and sizes, from small hatchbacks to luxury SUVs.

Some are electric versions of familiar models, others are all-new vehicles engineered to strictly use electric power. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles can operate on electric power alone for anywhere from 10 miles to 50 miles. Once their battery power is depleted, plug-ins transition from running on electricity to being powered by the gasoline engine mode to extend their range, allowing them to drive about as far as a regular car, and they can quickly refuel at a typical gas station. Plug-in hybrids are an appealing option for drivers who travel mostly short distances, and can benefit from operating on electricity most of the time.

But those owners can still get the ultimate range of a gasoline engine when needed. Battery electric vehicles are very efficient, and most newer models have enough range to satisfy the needs of a typical driver for multiple days without fully recharging. For most drivers, this means daily energy usage can be replenished from a simple volt outlet, without the need to purchase and install a volt charger.

10 Electric Vehicles 2019 - Electric Superbike - EVs - Personal Transportation

Battery electric vehicles have fewer components than a plug-in hybrid or an internal combustion engine vehicle, and so they often have lower maintenance costs—no oil changes necessary! Electric cars offer significantly lower fuel costs compared to traditional, gas-powered cars. On average, a gallon of gasoline costs about twice as much as the comparable cost to run an electric car. And electric rates tend to be more stable than oil prices. EVs produce no particulate or smog-causing tailpipe emissions, which are a significant contributing factor in causing asthma and other air pollution-related illnesses.

EVs cost more on average than typical gas-powered cars, and despite significant advances in range, they may not be ideal for some one-car households. Plug-in hybrids solve the range problem, but they still need a place to plug in to take full advantage of their propulsion system.

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Electric vehicle owners need to have ready access to an outlet or volt battery charger and a parking spot for overnight charging, unless they are relying entirely on workplace charging. Unlike refuelling a gas car, which takes only a few minutes, recharging an EV can take minutes depending on the battery size and charging speed using fast chargers and several hours with slower, Level 2 chargers see below for more details on levels.

Note also that in cold weather or extreme heat, the range plummets dramatically. Of course, an EV doesn't have to be somebody's only car. A conventional gas-powered car can fill in where a pure EV falls short—and vice versa—in a multi-car household. In some cases, those prices are thousands more than similarly-sized gas-powered cars.

Additional city and state tax credits, rebates, or vouchers are available in California, Colorado, New York, Texas, and elsewhere that can make the costs of electric cars more compelling and competitive with the price of non-EVs. Plus, consumers with a home solar system can really lower or even eliminate their energy costs.

Global EV Outlook 12222

Under current rules, once an automaker sells , electric cars, the value of the tax credit decrease and eventually fades away. So far, this has impacted only two automakers, General Motors and Tesla. However, Congress is considering a plan that would expand the federal tax credit, including increasing the number of electric cars from each automaker that is eligible for the credit, so this limitation may change. Be sure to consult your accountant to determine eligibility for receiving a tax credit.

Check current status for credits being offered with the IRS. You may be surprised to find that some EVs are more affordable than you think. The driving experience is quite different from a traditional gasoline-fueled car, as EVs feel like they glide effortlessly. Despite their heavy batteries, they typically handle well because that battery has been placed low in the vehicle, plus they lack a heavy engine above the front axle.

Check out our full EV ratings. Most all-electric cars can now go more than miles on a full charge—much less than the typical mile range for gasoline cars. We found that the EPA rated range is quite accurate for EVs, however, hilly terrain and running the air conditioning in hotter weather can also exact a toll. And driving in cold weather will shorten the range noticeably, due to the power required to heat the cabin.

Driving an EV requires planning. But plug-in hybrids have a combined gasoline and electric range of to miles, and if you plan it right, you may never have to go to a gas station, except for long trips. For plug-in hybrids, a total range that combines electric and gasoline power is shown in parentheses.

Charge times vary greatly, depending on the size of the battery, how fast the car is able to take the charge, and the amperage of the circuit. For most EV owners, charging overnight at home is the cheapest and most convenient option.

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On a typical volt, amp Level 2 charger, it takes between 9 and 13 hours to fully charge an EV that can go more than miles. Plug-in hybrids, with their smaller batteries, take significantly less time to recharge. For instance, it takes about 2 hours to replenish the Toyota Prius Prime. Expect about triple those times when charging from a standard volt Level 1 household outlet. Put another way, on a standard household outlet, expect to get about four miles of driving for every hour of charging.

A wider variety of volt chargers are coming on the market that charge at different speeds, with charge times that vary depending on the car and charger. Publicly accessible DC fast chargers are spreading throughout the country. The most common V2 superchargers can restore 50 of the battery capacity in 30 minutes for the Long Range versions of the Model 3, S, and X.

As another benefit, most electric-car drivers say they find it much more convenient to just plug in at home than to have to stop at gas stations. It entails putting a special volt receptacle in your garage, like the ones used for a clothes dryer. Check your utility and state incentives for discounts and tax rebates on charging equipment, some of which can cut the total cost in half.

Charging on the go is becoming increasingly viable. There are currently about 22, public EV charging ports in the U. There are apps available to help, including from the automakers. These are essential tools for EV owners. The latest survey from Consumer Reports finds that most Americans have at least some interest in electric vehicles and understand that EVs can help save money on fuel and maintenance. However, while battery technology has made great strides in recent years, batteries are still very expensive.

Clean fuel cells could be cheap enough to replace gas engines in vehicles

The present volume reviews the current and projected technology status of PHEVs; considers the factors that will affect how rapidly PHEVs could enter the marketplace, including the interface with the electric transmission and distribution system; determines a maximum practical penetration rate for PHEVs consistent with the time frame and factors considered in the Hydrogen report; and incorporates PHEVs into the models used in the hydrogen study to estimate the costs and impacts on petroleum consumption and carbon dioxide emissions.

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